bmon(1) bmon(1)

NAME
bmon - Portable bandwidth monitor and rate estimator

SYNOPSIS
bmon [ -awShV ] [ -i <mod> ] [ -o <mod> ] [ -I <mod> ] [ -O <mod> ]
[ -f <path> ] [ -p <policy> ] [ -r <float> ] [ -s <float> ]

DESCRIPTION
bmon is a portable bandwidth monitor with multiple input methods and output modes. A set of architecture specific input modules provide the core
with the listof interfaces and their counters. The core stores this counters and provides rate estimation including a history over the last 60
seconds, minutes, hours and days to the output modules which output them according to the configuration.

The set of counters is dependant on the input module and may vary. Secondary input and output modules may be used to collect counter values from
other nodes or to write HTML statistics. This input/output architecture minimizes the work needed to port it to other architectures or generate
specific statistics.

OPTIONS
-i Set primary input module and its configuration. The argument "list" will result in a list of available input modules. See INPUT MODULES
for more details.

-o Set primary output module and its configuration. The argument "list" will result in a list of available output modules. See OUTPUT MODULES
for more details.

-I Set secondary input modules and their configuration. The argument "list" will result in a list of available secondary input modules.

-O Set secondary output modules and their configuration. The argument "list" will result in a list of available secondary output modules.

-f Set alternative configuration path.

-p Set interface acceptance policy. See INTERFACE SELECTION for more details.

-a Include interfaces even if their status is down.

-r Set reading interval in which the input module will be called. The default for this is one second. Should be less or equal than 1 or a fac‚
tor of it. Values not equal to 1 will result in additional rate calculation with the read interval as its unit.

-s Set sleeping interval between calls to output short interval callbacks for interactive output modules. Changing this can affect the vari‚
ance of read intervals.

-w Enable signal driven output intervals. The output module will only be invoked upon receiving of SIGUSR1. Use bmon -S - to send the signal
to a running bmon instance in signal driven mode.

-S Send SIGUSR1 to a running bmon instance. This arugment takes either - which will result in invoking ps to find bmon instances or a pid
directly.

-h Prints a help text and exits.

-V Prints the version and exits.

INPUT MODULES
Input modules provide the core with interface statistics. Two kinds of modules exist, primary and secondary input modules. Their main difference
is usage, there may be only one primary module running at the same time while the number of secondary input modules is not limited.

Every input module has a description, help text and list of options available which can be seen by adding the option "help" to the module options:

bmon -i netlink:help
See MODULE CONFIGURATION for mode details.

PRIMARY INPUT MODULES
netlink (Linux)
Requires libnl and uses an rtnetlink to collect interface statistics. This input module also provides statistics about traffic control
qdiscs and classes. It is the preferred input module on Linux.

kstat (SunOS)
Provides interface statistics on SunOS operating systems in form of 32bit and 64bit counters. It is the preferred input module on SunOS.

sysctl (BSD, Darwin)
Provides interface statistics on BSD and Darwin operating systems. Is is the preferred input module on any BSD alike system.

proc (Linux)
Provides interface statistics on Linux using the proc filesystem (/proc/net/dev). It is one of the fallback input modules on Linux and will
work on nearly every Linux kernel version.

sysfs (Linux)
Provides interface statistics on Linux using the sys filesystem (/sys/class/net/). It may be used together with newer Linux kernel versions
but has no real advantage over the netlink input module. It caches open file descriptors to speed it up and is used as fallback method.

netstat (POSIX)
Provides limited interface statistics on almost any POSIX operating system by invoking netstat -i -a. Only use this as last hope.

dummy (any)
The purpose of the dummy input module is for testing. It generates in either a static or randomized form.

nulll (any)
Does not provide any interface statistics and thus can be used to disable local interface collection.

SECONDARY INPUT MODULES
distribution
Collects interface statistics from other nodes. It is the counterpart of the secondary output module called distribution. Its purpose is
to distribute statistics in real time with not too much bandwidth consumption itself. See DISTRIBUTION for more details.

OUTPUT MODULES
Output modules are feeded with rate estimations and graphs from the core and print them out to the configured output device. Two kinds of modules
exist, primary and secondary output modules. Their main difference is usage, there may be only one primary module running at the same time while
the number of secondary output modules is not limited.

Every output module has a description, help text and list of options available which can be seen by adding the option "help" to the module
options:

bmon -o ascii:help

See MODULE CONFIGURATION for mode details.

PRIMARY OUTPUT MODULES
ascii The ascii output modules prints out the diagrams and lists to standard output. The output format is highly configurable and suits as vmstat
alike tool for interface statistics.

curses Interactive curses user interface providing real time rate estimations and graphs. The default view is a list of all interfaces grouped per
node. The graphical history diagram and a list of detailed counters may be enabled/disable during runtime. Press ‚?‚ while the UI is run‚
ning to see the quick reference.

SECONDARY OUTPUT MODULES
html Writes all interface statistics and diagrams as HTML files including a navigation menu for all nodes and their interfaces. The layout can
be easly changes by altering the stylesheet which will not be overwritten.

distribution (any)
Distributes all statistics over the network using an UDP based statistic distribution protocol. The default configuration will use the mul‚
ticast address all-nodes but it may also be configured so send to a unicast address.

MODULE CONFIGURATION
ARGUMENT ::= modulename:OPTS[,modulename:OPTS[,...]]
OPTS ::= OPTION[;OPTION[;...]]
OPTION ::= type[=value]

If you specify multiple primrary input or output modules the first reported to be working module will be used.

If you specify multiple secondary input or output modules all of them will get invoked.

DISTRIBUTION
Statistic distribution is a powerful method to spread the statistic all over the network and make the available on every machine. The advantage
over web based statistic overviews and multi terminal remote shell based solutions is its nearly realtime accuracy while being lightweight and not
polluting the network too much. The protocol is UDP based and thus not reliable and optmized on size.

See include/bmon/distribution.h for the protocol specification.

DIAGRAM TYPES
You will find the following diagram types being used by all output modules in some form:

list A list of interfaces including their byte and packets rate (bps/pps).

graphical history diagram
A graph showing the history of a counter over the last 60 (read interval/ seconds/minutes/hours/days). The outer left column is the most
recent rate while the outer right column is the most outdated. The preferred diagram to impress co-workers.

detailed
Detailed counters such as error counters or other attributes assigned to this interface. The list of attributes may very depending on the
input module and architecture of the host OS.

INTERFACE SELECTION
SELECTION ::= NAME[,NAME[,...]]
NAME ::= [!]interface

The interface name may contain the character ‚*‚ which will act as a wildcard and represents any number of any character type, i.e. eth*, h*0, ...

Examples:
lo,eth0,eth1
eth*,!eth0

CONFIGURATION FILE
Bmon will try and read configuration data from the following files in the specified order: /etc/bmon.conf, $HOME/.bmonrc.

None of the above files will be read if the path to the configuration file was specified using the -f option.

Configuration possibilities:

input <module configuration>
Specify primary input module (-i), see INPUT MODULES.

secondary_input <module configuration>
Specify secondary input modules (-I), see INPUT MODULES.

output <module configuration>
Specify primary output module (-o), see OUTPUT MODULES.
secondary_output <module configuration>
Specify secondary output modules (-O), see OUTPUT MODULES.

policy <policy>
Set interface acceptance policy (-p), see INTERFACE SELECTION.

read_interval <interval>
Set reading interval in which the input module will be called (-r).

sleep_time <interval>
Set sleeping interval between calls to output short interval callbacks for interactive output modules. (-s)

show_all
Include interface even if their status is down. (-a)

include <file>
Include file and read it as configuration file.

Color layouts
See COLOR LAYOUTS.

Bindings
See BIND INTERFACE.

COLOR LAYOUTS
The layout is used to specify the look‚n‚feel of the curses output module. The color "default" represents the terminal color which can be used to
keep the background transparent for transparent terminals.

Colors: default, black, red, green, yellow, blue, magenta, cyan, white

Flags: reverse

Layouts: Default, Statusbar, Header, List, Selected,

Prototype:
Layout <name> <foreground> <background> <flags>

Example:
Layout Statusbar red black reverse

Feel free to submit patches extending the configurability using layouts.

BIND INTERFACE
The bind interface can be used to bind not yet assigned keys to shell scripts. It currently works in the curses output module but it might be
ported to other output modules in the future. The interface name of the currently selected interface is provided to the script via the first argu‚
ment.

Prototype:
Bind <key> <Executable>

Example:
bind D /sbin/intf_down.sh

EXAMPLES
To run bmon in curses mode monitoring the interfaces eth0 and eth1:
bmon -i eth0,eth1 -o curses

To run bmon in acii mode printing the detailed diagram with fixed y-axis unit:
bmon -o ‚ascii:diagram=detailed;ynit=kb‚
Layouts: Default, Statusbar, Header, List, Selected,

Prototype:
Layout <name> <foreground> <background> <flags>

Example:
Layout Statusbar red black reverse

Feel free to submit patches extending the configurability using layouts.

BIND INTERFACE
The bind interface can be used to bind not yet assigned keys to shell scripts. It currently works in the curses output module but it might be
ported to other output modules in the future. The interface name of the currently selected interface is provided to the script via the first argu‚
ment.

Prototype:
Bind <key> <Executable>

Example:
bind D /sbin/intf_down.sh

EXAMPLES
To run bmon in curses mode monitoring the interfaces eth0 and eth1:
bmon -i eth0,eth1 -o curses

To run bmon in acii mode printing the detailed diagram with fixed y-axis unit:
bmon -o ‚ascii:diagram=detailed;ynit=kb‚

To run bmon in signal driven mode drawing the graphical diagram with customized drawing characters and fixed x and y axis:
bmon -s -o ‚ascii:diagram=graph;fgchar=#;bgcar=_;xunit=min‚

To run bmon with no primrary output (daemon) but distribute the statistic over the network:
bmon -o null -O distribution

To run bmon collecting local and remote statistics and show it in curses mode:
bmon -I distribution:multicast -o curses

To build a relay and collect remote statistic and send them to a unicast address while ignoring errors because the destination is not available:
bmon -i null -I distribution:multicast -o null -O ‚distribution:ip=10.0.0.1;errignore;forward‚

To collect local statistics and those from the whole network and generate a HTML page out of the those statistics:
bmon -I distribution:multicast -o null -O html:path=/var/istats/

KNOWN ISSUES
The curses output modules doesn‚t work properly on NetBSD < 2.0 because getch() cannot be set to be non-blocking.

sysctl input segfaults on sparc64 OpenBSD.

FILES
/etc/bmon.conf
$HOME/.bmonrc

SEE ALSO
ifconfig(8), kstat(1M), netlink(3)

AUTHOR
Thomas Graf <tgraf@suug.ch>

Bandwidth Monitor Oct 27, 2004 bmon(1)